The present article is the first ever written on this body. Version with images hypertext version. Specifically, this noun variously signals three related nuances: membership or participation; representation as exemplar; and representation on behalf of others.
There are substantially fewer mss. Moreover, none of the mss.
The formation of a single collection including the twelve prophetic books is later than often claimed, and the question of whether the anthology of the XII originated in Jerusalem or Alexandria remains open. Many studies on the formation of the collection of the Twelve Minor Prophets take for granted that the 4QXIIa manuscript provides evidence that the Book of Jonah stood at the end of a scroll of the Twelve and that this sequence could have been the original one.
Examination of the reconstruction of the scroll published in the DJD XV volume reveals that the Malachi-Jonah sequence is highly hypothetical and should not be considered as firm evidence. It includes an introduction by the editor and contributions by Philip R.
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The troublesome reign of Ishbosheth comes to a graphic conclusion when he is assassinated — audaciously, at midday while reclining on a couch in his own house — by two of his own captains, the brothers Rechab and Baanah. That Ishbosheth is assassinated while sleeping in his house at high noon there is no doubt: the guilty confess, are charged, and duly executed.
But the puzzle is how exactly the murder takes place — and this is subject of my analysis — as there are significant discrepancies between the Hebrew and Greek texts. I then move toward a conclusion by summarizing the key differences between the MT and LXX in this passage and discussing some of the literary implications that emerge when these textual trajectories are compared.
As a witness to the murder, the LXX provides an exciting and compelling testimony, but the MT account features several important details that cannot be ignored in light of the larger storyline. This conversation with Jacob L. It includes an introduction by the editor and contributions by Deirdre N.
Fulton, David M. Carr, Ralph W. Klein and a response by Jacob L. The present analysis of Haggai —11 points at a sophisticated structure that differs at some points from those widely accepted. In addition, while some scholars explain the complexity of the passage as a composite process of formation, this paper has shown a well structured sermon designed to influence an adversary audience. The first part of the prophet's words 1: 4—6 is meant to demonstrate to the people their erroneous approach.
The second part —9 intends to show the people the right way. The last part of Haggai's words —11 construes the economic stress in terms of the covenantal relationship between God and Yehud that continues to play a central role, as in the pre-destruction period. The conversation represented here originated in a special session at the Annual Meeting of the Association for Jewish Studies that dealt with the issue of the shifting role of scribes leading up to and following the Babylonian destruction of Jerusalem in BCE.
The essays situate all scribal groups in relation to the nation's priestly tradition and circles, address diverse matters of socio-political agenda, and identify trends in the development of literary methodology. This conversation includes an introduction by the editor, and contributions by M. Leuchter, Jacob L. Wright, Jeffrey C. Geoghegan, and Lauren A. In two recent articles and in his book, The Edited Bible, Van Seters challenged the existence of a redactor in antiquity and the subsequent development of redaction criticism as a viable method in biblical literary criticism.
This debate between whether a source of the Pentateuch, such as J, or the writer of the Deuteronomistic History should be understood as author or editor is reflected in the responses to Van Seters by Jean-Louis Ska, Eckart Otto and Christoph Levin. In this essay Van Seters seeks to answer the various points raised by these scholars and to clarify what is meant by an ancient author as well as the view that the concept of editor is anachronistic before the modern period.
He also defends his view that both von Rad and Noth, in the case of J, and Noth, in the case of Dtr, believed that the Yahwist and Dtr were authors and historians and not merely editors. In later times, God's abode in the Temple or Jerusalem completely displaced God's desert abode, relegating it to evil forces as was the belief in Near-Eastern cultures.
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This conversation with Melody D. Fulton, David Janzen, Ralph W. Klein and a response by Melody D. This essay seeks the underlying worldview of the Song of Songs. It does so in three steps. Firstly, over against the widespread assumption that the metaphors of the Song of Songs refer to human erotic love, or indeed the older assumption that they are allegories for the relations between God and Israel, or God and the Church, this article asks what happens when we break such metaphoric connections.
In other words, what happens if we take the metaphors at face value? Secondly, once the metaphors are freed from their links with human erotic love, they take on a life of their own, one of fecund and fertile nature.
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The third step involves an exploration of what the worldview of such a fecund nature might be. My suggestion is that it may be understood as a utopian element — nature producing freely and of its own accord — of what I call the sacred economy. Though Woman Wisdom has often been viewed as a positive figure for feminism, I will show that the picture is much grimmer. The article has two parts. First, I will demonstrate that the personification of wisdom reinscribes the typical ideology of the time along gender, social class, and racial lines. The eroticization of wisdom as female actually excludes the woman from the search for truth and knowledge because it assumes its adherents are male.
Woman Wisdom is shown to be upper class, while Folly is poor. And Woman Wisdom is shown to be xenophobic in her preference for Jewish boys. The boundary between the two begins to blur. The first, focuses on alliteration, or the repeated use of consonants. The second section collects examples of assonance, or the repeated use of vowel patterns. The third section focuses on illustrations of polysemy; cases in which words bear more than one meaning in a single context.
The fourth section, which is related to polysemy, details cases of antanaclasis. Antanaclasis occurs when a word is used multiple times, but with different meanings. In the fifth section, I provide examples of allusive punning, i. The sixth section is devoted to instances of numerical punning. After providing the data for each of these devices, I offer some general observations on punning in Qoheleth. According to TB Yoma 21b, the urim and the thummim and the spirit of prophecy were among the things missing from the Second Temple.
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According to Ezra —63 Neh. Josephus suggests, however, that the urim and thummim stopped shining, that is they ceased to function, only around BCE, about the time of John Hyrcanus' death. According to Josephus, then, second temple high priests consulted urim and thummim. To decide between these two claims, we examine second temple texts dated to the period before Hyrcanus' death. These texts confirm Josephus and suggest that the contemporary high priest may have used urim and thummim as an oracular device.
This conversation with O. Knoppers, Hugh G. Williamson and a response by Oded Lipschits. None of the various scenarios that could explain its disappearance can also serve to explain why it remained hidden for so long, only to be discovered at just the right moment to provide a willing Josiah with the justification to begin a cultic reform program. With the increasing maturation of the linguistic analysis of ancient Hebrew, it becomes increasingly important that we keep in mind the inherent challenges of analyzing no-longer-spoken languages, like ancient Hebrew.
In this article I address a number of such issues in the hopes of provoking some fruitful discussion. First, I address the distinction between linguistic analysis and philological analysis. Because of the similar dating system in the books of Haggai and Zechariah, since the end of the 19th century it has been proposed that these two books once formed an independent collection: the Haggai-Zechariah corpus.
But neither the formation nor the intention of this corpus has been adequately explained. Then the article shows that the Haggai-Zechariah corpus can be understood as a reaction to the decreasing hope for divine salvation in the fifth century. In the light of, and despite the negative experiences that characterize this period, the Haggai-Zechariah corpus adheres to the promises of the early pre-exilic prophecy.
But in order to adhere to these promises, the conditions for their fulfillment had to be re defined. Giving special attention to the blood manipulation component of the ritual complex Num , this paper explores a variety of theoretical questions about the interpretation of ritual activity represented in biblical ritual texts. It highlights the significance of the textuality of our access to biblical ritual, the need to fill gaps while interpreting biblical ritual texts, and points to the value of considering the indexical qualities of ritual actions. Greek tradition does not provide consistent and reliable evidence that an unusual inundation contributed to the fall of Nineveh.
The Babylonian chronicles do not mention such an extraordinary event nor have archaeological excavations at Nineveh produced any evidence in support of such notion.
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Nineveh's topography precludes the possibility of significant flooding by the Khosr canal.